The V4 Towards Migration Challenges in Europe

    Opis produktu

    The culmination of the large-scale influx of migrants in the European area in 2015 and 2016 has not only led to severe pressure on the affected countries – transit countries as well as countries of destination – but also to the questioning of fundamental achievements of the European Union such as the freedom of movement. The migrant crisis also shed light on pressing issues still in need of satisfying responses reflecting reality, such as the case of the revision of the 1951 Geneva Convention on the status of refugees and the Dublin Ili Regulation setting forth that an asylum application needs to be filed in the first country of entry. Not only did the crisis reveal already existing ruptures between Western and Eastern Europe, but it also showed that the European Union as such is incapable of taking firm and swift decisions regarding the protection of its own borders and citizens against an unprecedented influx of irregular migrants – many of them without official documents. Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia are all sceptical towards the idea of positivist humanitarian approach towards migrations and introducing limits on accepting refugees for each EU state. Such reluctance derives from many different aspects, from political and geopolitical to social and cultural. Does V4 region is in fact threatened by migration crisis? lt is evident, that Hungary being the transit state can face significant threats. However, none of those states have the status of settlement countries or long-standing destinations.


    Table of Contents

    Introduction (Anna Kobierecka, Martin Riegl) 9

    Chapter 1. Migration as a Political and Public Phenomenon: The Case of Czech Republic (Jan Bečka, Bohumil Doboš, Filip Gantner, Jakub Landovský, Lenka Pítrová, Martin Riegl, Scarlett Waitzmanová) 29
    1.1. Introduction: Scene-setter 30
    1.2. The Czech Asylum and Migration Policies within the EU Framework 32
    1.2.1. The EU Asylum Policy Framework 32
    1.2.2. The Refugee Legal Framework in the Czech Republic 34
    1.2.3. A Closer Look into the Rights and Duties of the Asylum Seekers and Seekers of International Protection 38
    1.2.4. Conclusions: Reaction to the Migration Crisis and Its Reflection in the Legislation 39
    1.2.5. The Enhancement of the Procedure Leading to the Decision on Granting the Asylum and for the Judicial Review 42
    1.2.6. The Relocation of Refugees 43
    1.2.7. The Issue of Detentions 43
    1.2.8. Additional Crisis Management Measure 44
    1.2.9. Current Legal Problems and the Possible Way Ahead 45
    1.3. Integration Policies and Programmes of the Czech Government – Key Documents and Responsible Institutions 45
    1.3.1. The Basic Principles of the Czech Migration and Integration Policy 46
    1.3.2. The Humanitarian and Development Aid in the Migration Context 50
    1.4. The Perception of Migrants/Refugees in the Czech Republic and the Impact of the Migration Crisis on the Czech Political Scene 51
    1.4.1. The Perception of Migrants/Refugees among the General Public in the Czech Republic 52
    1.4.2. Migration as a Topic of the General Political Discourse in the Czech Republic 54
    1.5. The Czech Republic and the Reactions to the Migration Crisis on the International Scene 58
    1.5.1. The Visegrad Group (V4), the Czech Presidency and Its Activities on the EU Level 59
    1.5.2. The Alternative V4 Plan (“Plan B”) 72
    1.5.3. The Regional Outreach – CEDC, the Salzburg Forum and Their Significance 75
    1.5.4. The Practical Assistance Provided by the Czech Ministry of Defence (MoD) and the Czech Army to Deal with the Migration Crisis (as of 31 December 2016) 77
    1.5.5. The Contribution of the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic and the Czech Police in Dealing with Migration Crisis 78
    1.6. Conclusion 80

    Chapter 2. Migration as a Political and Public Phenomenon: The Case of Hungary (Sándor Gallai, Dániel Horváth, Hanga Horváth-Sántha) 83
    2.1. Introduction 84
    2.2. Migration Policy 91
    2.2.1. The EU Asylum Policy Framework 91 Asylum Outlook 91 Aliens Policing Outlook 95 Citizenship and National Policy Outlook 97
    2.2.2. Institutional Framework: Main Stakeholders and Reception Facilities 98
    2.2.3. Other Policies 101
    2.2.4. Social Integration of Migrants and Refugees 106 Labour Market Integration of Migrants in Hungary 108 Migrant and State Strategies towards Integration 110 The Hungarian Law on Asylum 111 Social Integration of Refugees and Persons Entitled to International Protection in Practice 113
    2.3. Public Attitude 113
    2.4. Political Implications 118
    2.4.1. The Evolution of the Party System 118
    2.4.2. Party Positions on Immigration 123 Fidesz 124 Jobbik 130 Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) 133 Other Parliamentary Parties 136
    2.4.3. The Quota Referendum 140
    2.4.4. The Dynamics of Party Contest in the Area of Migration 144
    2.5. Conclusions 147

    Chapter 3. Migration as a Political and Public Phenomenon: The Case of Poland (Anna Kobierecka, Michał Kobierecki, Robert Łoś, Michał Rulski) 149
    3.1. Introduction 150
    3.2. Migration Policy in Poland 152
    3.2.1. Legal Framework 152
    3.2.2. Institutional Framework 156 The Ministry of the Interior and Administration 156 The Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy 157
    3.2.3. Other Polish Policies Addressing Migration 157
    3.2.4. Social Integration 158 The Legal Framework of the Polish Integration System 159 Shortcomings of Polish Integration Policy 164
    3.3. Public Attitude 165
    3.4. Political Implitacions 173
    3.4.1. Polish Political Parties before the 2015 Elections 174
    3.4.2. Polish Political Parties after the 2015 Elections 181
    3.4.3. Polish Political Parties and Their Attitude towards Migrants after the 2015 Elections 183
    3.4.4. Final Remarks 185
    3.5. Conclusions 187

    Chapter 4. Migration as a Political and Public Phenomenon: The Case of Slovak Republic (Martina Bolečekova, Barbora Olejarova) 191
    4.1. Introduction 192
    4.1.1. Forced Migration: Refugees and Asylum Seekers 193
    4.1.2. Illegal Immigration 195
    4.2. Migration Policy 198
    4.2.1. Legal Framework 198
    4.2.2. Institutional Framework 201
    4.2.3. Social Integration 203
    4.2.4. Other Policies 205
    4.2.5. The Slovak Presidency of the EU Council 207
    4.2.6. Slovakia’s Position on the Quota System 209
    4.3. Public Attitudes 211
    4.4. Political Implications 215
    4.5. Conclusions 224
    4.5.1. SR-V4 Cooperation 225
    4.5.2. SR-EU Relations 225

    Conclusions (Sándor Gallai) 227
    Notes about Authors 235



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