Turyzm / Tourism Vol. 33 No. 2

Opublikowano: 12 lutego 2024
Kopia – Kopia – Bez tytułu (1200×830 px)

Turyzm jest najstarszym polskim czasopismem naukowym o tematyce turystycznej. Wydawany jest przez Instytut Geografii Miast i Turyzmu Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego nieprzerwanie od 1985 r. Jest jednym z niewielu tytułów w Polsce skierowanych do naukowców reprezentujących różne dyscypliny i zajmujących się problematyką turystyczną, w tym przede wszystkim do geografów, ekonomistów, socjologów oraz przedstawicieli innych nauk społecznych.


A novel framework for social life cycle assessment to achieve sustainable cultural tourism destinations
Mojtaba Javdan, Kamran Jafarpour Ghalehteimouri, Moslem Ghasemi, Arezu Riazi

Tourism has a significant multiplier effect on other socioeconomic sectors, leading to improved infrastructure and public services. Its environmental impact, however, remains a subject of concern and there has been a growing emphasis on increasing the sustainability of tourism attractions. Despite the global importance of sustainability evaluation, there are just a few widely accepted methodologies for evaluating it. The life cycle concept is utilised to assess environmental, economic and social impacts and one critical life cycle tool is social life cycle assessment (S-LCA). Tourism-associated activities are ideally suited for the elaboration of data related to social sustainability due to tourism-specific service specifications. As a result, the main question is how can S-LCA help to ensure the long-term viability of cultural tourism destinations. This paper investigates the theoretical evolution of both S-LCA and cultural tourism in order to answer this question. A new framework S-LCA for sustainable cultural tourist destinations is developed and examined, as are potential application gaps. The hypothesized S-LCA conceptual framework S-LCA can thus play an effective role in accomplishing the principles and objectives of sustainable tourism destination management by bringing all stakeholders’ interests together.

Travel decision making through blogs and vlogs: An empirical investigation on how user-generated content influences destination image
Deepti R. Jog, Nelissa Andrea Alcasoas

Tourist decision-making is based on the information available before visiting a destination. Although marketing content has a role to play, user-generated content (UGC) has gained momentum in recent years. This study considering the role of travel blogs and vlogs created by the user, aims to comprehend the role of these information sources in the decision-making of their consumers. The present research investigates the preference of travelers for UGC and its role in travel decision-making over other marketing information generated by destination marketing organisations (DMOs). The study is based on responses from 220 Indian tourists via an online web-based survey conducted using a structured questionnaire and applying multi-stage sampling. The study findings reveal a strengthened preference for blogs and vlogs among travelers compared to traditional DMO marketing content. The study provides implications for industry players that can help engage their visitors in UGC creation and dissemination for better marketing by suggesting suitable strategies for tourism.

Determining the factors influencing tourist souvenir expenditure: The case of Turkey
Onur Kızılcık, Kemal Birdir

In this study, information will be explored that will contribute to increasing tourism income in destinations with low tourist expenditure per person. For this purpose, the souvenir expenditure of tourists in Turkey is examined. Souvenir stores in Sultanahmet and the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul were investigated using a qualitative case study research design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 souvenir sellers and 778 online comments of tourists shopping in souvenir stores were analyzed by netnography. As a result of the research, it has been determined that the efforts made to transform products based on the natural, historical and cultural richness of Turkey into brands, and thus increase local product diversity, play a critical role in increasing souvenir expenditure. On the other hand, the importance of the selection of high spending tourists as the target market and increasing the employment of qualified workers in the tourism sector has emerged.

Manifesting smart tourism destinations: A study based on selected Himalayan cities in India
Aruditya Jasrotia, Amit Gangotia

In urban planning, the term smartness is considered as a philosophic dimension which enables smarter strategic decisions and directions. The involvement of information technology in the functioning of the daily life of cities is directed towards the development of smart cities. Smart tourism destinations can also implement smartness by employing suitable tourism applications within a smart city. The purpose of the study is to explore the enabling factors for establishing smart tourism destinations in the Indian Himalayas. This research used a qualitative methodology and conducted interviews with relevant stakeholders from the study areas, Jammu and Dharamshala. The data collected were recorded, transcribed and coded with the help of NVivo 12, in order to carry out thematic and content analysis. The findings of the study showcase that community welfare, information communication technology, quality of life, sociocultural heritage, stewardship, sustainable development and tourism resources are the enabling factors for smart tourism destinations in the context of the selected Himalayan cities in India. This study will be beneficial for destination managers for assessing destination smartness, and further, for researchers who want to study smart tourism destinations.

Destination brand brilliance as a differential advantage for a tourist destination
Mojgan Barkhordari, Yazdan Shirmohammadi, Shahram Hashemnia

The purpose of this article is to investigate the formation of tourist-based destination brand brilliance as a differential advantage for a destination according to Alderson’s differential theory. This will be done via content generated on social media sites by both destination management organizations and tourists, and through the mediating role of three dimensions of Aaker’s brand equity model: awareness, image and perceived quality. Alderson’s differential theory in a tourism context, and investigating the brilliance aspect of a brand, are both new research areas. Data was collected by electronically distributing questionnaires to 398 WhatsApp and Telegram users in Iran. This study confirms the relationship between tourist-generated content and destination brand brilliance through the mediating roles of awareness, image and perceived quality, but the content generated by the destination management organization to make a destination brand brilliant is only possible through the mediating roles of image and perceived quality. There is also a significant positive relationship between the perceived quality of a destination and the formation of destination brand brilliance. The findings of this research will help destination management organizations to better think about, and better manage, content generated on social media sites by organizations and tourists to form brilliance for their destination brand.

Ecotourism research progress: A bibliometric analysis (period 2002–2022) using VOSviewer Software
Anh Toai Le, Hoang Son Nguyen

This study aims to conduct a bibliometric analysis of ecotourism literature in the period from 2002 to 2022 using VOSviewer software. 1,693 articles indexed by Scopus were analyzed. The results reveal that ecotourism is a developing research field that attracts scholars from many countries. Most of the articles were published in the United States, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia, and the United Kingdom. The study identified four main thematic areas: (a) the involvement of local communities and stakeholders in ecotourism management and development in protected areas; (b) ecotourists’ perceptions, attitudes and behaviours; (c) the use of technology and environmental management to support ecotourism development planning and management; and (d) biodiversity conservation and sustainable development in ecotourism. This study suggests that decision-making based on data, stakeholder participation and climate adaptation in the planning and management of ecotourism is attracting the attention of researchers worldwide.

Innovation culture as a premise for engaging and memorable tourist experiences through gamification
Sonia Mileva

The purpose of the article is to research the impact of innovativeness and innovation culture as premises for effective gamification at destination level. The main hypothesis defended is that innovation culture and gamification can be powerful tools for tourism destination management. By creating a culture that supports innovation and implementing gamification strategies, tourism destinations can enhance their competitiveness, attract more tourists and improve the overall tourism experience. Bulgaria has been selected as the tourism destination for analysis. The methodology combines desk research with key informant surveys. The first survey is about innovativeness and innovation culture and the second is about destination gamification. Both include 18 informants, representing the travel and hospitality sectors in Bulgaria. The main findings are that innovation culture and gamification can be powerful tools for tourism destination management. The contribution is a first attempt to link innovation culture with destination management and the use of gamification as a tool for memorable tourist experiences. The article contains data and gives practical insights reflecting the Bulgarian perspective in the field.

Work-related stress experienced by tour guides
Gülşah Akkuş, Aytuğ Arslan

Work-related stress (WRS) is stress caused or exacerbated by work. As ‘maestro’, tour guides (TGs) perform a variety of tasks within and outside the job description. Tour guides inevitably feel stress due to the demands from various parties. This study focuses on WRS of TGs and contributes to the literature by identifying stress factors from the perspective of TGs. According to the explanatory sequential design frame, a quantitative study was conducted with 90 participants, followed by a qualitative one with 16. From the five categories extracted through content analysis, to understand the relationship between WRS and work-related ill health (WRIH), WRIH-type and WRIH-reason were further analyzed. Findings show that WRS accounts for 15% of all the health problems of TGs. Unsafe conditions (UCs) are responsible for much of the stress experienced, while harassment, bullying and mobbing (HBM) from customers, shopkeepers, drivers and travel agents is the main stressor.

Tourism village clusters: Potential for development at Jepara, Indonesia
Fafurida Fafurida, Shanty Oktavilia, Phany Ineke Putri, Lutfiana Nur Atika

The tourism sector is one of the leading national economic sectors in Indonesia and it has developed very rapidly. Efforts to improve the rural economy are also directed at tourism development. Central Java is a province with a number of tourist villages and development in some regions like Jepara Regency has locations that are close to each other. This research aims at identifying the cluster pattern of tourist village development in Jepara Regency, Central Java Province. It applies a quantitative approach using secondary data with a k-means cluster analysis. The results found that there are three clusters of tourist villages in Jepara Regency: (a) cluster 1 has six tourist villages which have high numbers of visitors, easy access, appropriate public and tourist facilities, but have few attractions and their locations are quite far from each other; (b) cluster 2 has eight tourist villages with many attractions, appropriate public facilities, close distances between locations and easy access, but have low numbers of visitors and limited tourist facilities; (c) cluster 3 has ten tourist villages, easy access, but a low rate of tourist visits, limited attractions, long distances between locations, and also limited public and tourist facilities.

The impact of differential pricing on perceived service quality and guest satisfaction: An empirical study of mid-scale hotels in India
Amjad Imam Ansari, Amrik Singh, Vipin Singh

The aim of this article is to identify the key factors of differential pricing and its impact on perceived service quality and guest satisfaction. Great attention has been given by researchers to service quality and guest satisfaction in the tourism and hotel industry. This study however examines an integrated model of differential pricing, perceived service quality and guest satisfaction linked to value perception and satisfaction among guests for prices offered at the time of room booking, and the services available during their stay. A self-administered questionnaire was given to guests who stayed in mid-scale hotels and 334 responses were collected randomly. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the data set, a second-generation method that enables simultaneous modelling of a large number of independent and dependent variables. Partial least square SmartPLS 4.0 was used to evaluate the data. The measurement model and the structural model are the two used to examine the data. According to survey results and findings, booking channel and booking volume are significantly related to guest satisfaction. Additionally, the booking channel has a significant relationship with perceived service quality. Maintaining high-quality websites is crucial to attracting visitors and keeping them, eventually leading to more people using travel websites out of loyalty.

The measurement of crisis management strategies in tourism. Development and validation of a scale
Ramjit Singh, Adil Amin Nazki

Crises and disasters pose significant obstacles to the socio-economic progress of any destination, especially in the tourism sector. Although travel and tourism are among the world’s most prominent economic sectors, they are susceptible to various hindrances, such as natural disasters, political instability and unpredictable terrorist attacks, which can harm the destination’s reputation and decrease tourist arrivals. While humans cannot control these incidents, they can implement measures, strategies and activities to mitigate their impact. This research aims to create and validate a scale for crisis management strategies in tourism using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A 58-item questionnaire was developed based on literature reviews and interviews with destination marketing organizations (DMO’s), which was then reduced to 47 items after content validation by experts and the target population. EFA was conducted on data from 346 tourism stakeholders, resulting in six discrete factors: media, promotional measures, partnering, security and awareness, innovative marketing, and finance. Finally, AMOS 21 was used to perform confirmatory factor analysis, and the crisis management strategies scale developed retained 38 items.

Examining tourists’ intentions to participate in tea tourism. An emerging market context
Enakshi Dutta, Vishal Soodan, Tajinder Jassal, Anurag Jain

Tea tourism, a growing niche segment within the broader realm of culinary and cultural tourism, has gained prominence as an emerging market opportunity. This study investigates the factors influencing tourists’ intentions towards tea tourism. The research uses the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework, incorporating variables like destination credibility, authenticity, destination image, attitude and an intention to visit tea tourism destinations. Data from 392 domestic tourists were analyzed using structural equation modelling (CB-SEM). Key findings underscore the importance of factors such as destination image, tea-related knowledge and prior tea tourism experiences in shaping tourists’ intentions. This research not only contributes to the emerging tea tourism market but also offers valuable insights for destination marketers, policymakers and tea industry stakeholders. Understanding these influencing factors can help tailor marketing strategies and offers to make tea tourism destinations more appealing, thus supporting sustainable growth in this burgeoning industry. Ultimately, this study sheds light on the preferences of tourists seeking immersive tea experiences and guides efforts to develop and promote tea-related tourism experiences effectively.

Study of the therapeutic effects of Icelandic natural landscape images. A case study of Chinese tourists
Guotai Bao

The study employs a comprehensive experimental methodology, utilizing a diverse collection of photographs organized into 18 distinct groups. There are three main objectives. First, it explores the cultural and psychological factors that make Icelandic landscapes so therapeutic for the Chinese. Second, it aims to prove how photographs of natural landscapes (two-dimensional images) can have a healing effect on individuals. Third, it strives to create a model for sorting healing photographs and making them useful for selecting images for healing albums.

A Likert-scale questionnaire was distributed to 1,000 participants from China, 500 individuals who have visited Iceland, and 500 who have not. This diverse pool consists of 500 males and 500 females, spanning ages from 10 to 80.

The results reveal the top-ranked landscapes and significant improvements in participants’ psychological well-being after viewing the pictures. The findings support the therapeutic nature of the curated collection of forty photographs, providing inspiration and promoting well-being through the beauty and transformative power of nature. This experimental investigation contributes to an understanding of healing landscapes and their potential in assisting psychological therapy and landscape design.


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