Soft Power in Contemporary International Relations


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Opis produktu

Soft power, is not a new phenomenon in a political practice but it may be considered a novelty in the theory of international relations. The concept of soft power reflects the character of changes which took place in international relations when the notion of security was extended to include threats and challenges of non-military character. New threats and challenges require another type of instruments which are identified with soft power to a greater extent.

Marginalising soft power is a consequence of one-dimensional perception of power as belonging to the military domain. lt results from an erroneous conviction that soft power resources i.e. culture, values, norms and a political style do not belong to the category of power.

Furthermore, soft power must not be overrated at the expense of hard power which is identified with military force and economic pressure. Soft power is certainly an important dimension of power and failure to include it in states’ plans may lead to problems with achieving its basic objectives.



Introduction 9

Chapter 1. Power versus world order 23
1.1. Contemporary world order 25
1.2. Power in theoretical approach 37
1.3. Measures and indicators of power 52

Chapter 2. Resources and instruments of soft power 63
2.1. Soft and hard power: scope of action 65
2.1.1. The concept of soft power 65
2.1.2. Hard power versus soft power 74 Military power versus soft power 77 Economy versus soft power 82
2.2. Soft power resources 87
2.2.1. Classification of resources 87
2.2.2. Norms and values 88
2.2.3. Culture 94 Education 101
2.2.4. Foreign policy 102 The scope of the notion 102 Legitimization 106 Ability to build a consensus 110 Measures and methods of a state’s foreign policy 112 The perception of foreign policy operational environment 115
2.3. New instruments of soft power interaction 117
2.3.1. Public diplomacy 117
2.3.2. Cultural diplomacy 126
2.3.3. National branding 131
2.4. National institutions and a society 136
2.4.1. A state’s political regime and soft power 136
2.4.2. Social conditions of reinforcing soft power 141
2.5. Instruments of support 143
2.5.1. Media 143 Communication possibilities and credibility of information 143 A role of contemporary media 145
2.5.2. Foundations – think tanks 149
Conclusion 153

Chapter 3. Contemporary power and soft power 157
3.1. Indicators of a state’s hard power 159
3.2. Soft power ranking 171
3.2.1. Selected rankings of soft power 171
3.2.2. Original ranking of states’ soft power 175 Diplomacy 175 Social-political category 178 Popular and high culture 183 Education and science 189 The social-economic category 192

Conclusion 203
Bibliography 213



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